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英文论文摘要的根基要求与常见布局,分享大量典范与句型!

本文摘要:英文论文摘要的根基要求与常见布局,分享大量典范与句型! 本文先先容摘要的根基要求和常见布局,接着分享包罗10个好的摘要举例的资源,最后给出摘要的根基句型。摘要的根基要求和常见布局 资源分享:10份写得好的摘要 摘要的根基句型 摘要的根基要求和常见布局 === 一般而言,摘要需要突出全文的五个要素,这五个要素别离是问题陈述、念头、方法、成果和结论(Koopman,1997)。 问题陈述:对要解决的问题举行归纳综合,适当突出问题的重要性和今朝存在的不足。

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英文论文摘要的根基要求与常见布局,分享大量典范与句型! 本文先先容摘要的根基要求和常见布局,接着分享包罗10个好的摘要举例的资源,最后给出摘要的根基句型。摘要的根基要求和常见布局 资源分享:10份写得好的摘要 摘要的根基句型 摘要的根基要求和常见布局 === 一般而言,摘要需要突出全文的五个要素,这五个要素别离是问题陈述、念头、方法、成果和结论(Koopman,1997)。

问题陈述:对要解决的问题举行归纳综合,适当突出问题的重要性和今朝存在的不足。念头:指出详细研究什么内容,该研究内容是问题陈述中声明的问题的一个子集。

须要时给出研究方针。方法:扼要先容为获得研究成果所采纳的研究方法。成果:概述论文获得的最重要的研究成果,如重要数据、纪律和发明等。结论 :研究成果有什么寄义、影响和意义。

以下是摘要的一些根基要求: 长度要求 :差别期刊对摘要的长度划定纷歧样,但假如摘要是一页的三分之一阁下,那么显得有种雅观的感受。五要素的权重 :看哪些要素重要。假如问题重要,突出问题;假如方法重要,突出方法;假如某条成果重要,突出成果;假如结论重要,那么突出结论。假如某个要素完全不重要,那么可以不呈现。

成果的先容 :尽可能给出最详细的甚至量化到最后一级的成果。比方,“纷歧样”比“高、低、强、弱”差一些,“高、低、强、弱”比“高几多、低几多、强几多、弱几多”差一些。

结论的先容 :结论除交接解决了什么问题外,可适当总结出对本事域科学家甚至更宽广的范畴而言你的研究成果的通用价值。这对于需要将影响力辐射到其它学科读者的论文尤其重要。

其它要求 :摘要是全文的一个简介,应尽可能简短;摘要是独立阅读的文本(可能单独呈现在检索系统和公告中),不能包罗需要翻阅全文才能理解的符号和编号,因此不允许按编号引用章节、图表、公式和参考文献等;摘要用于吸引更多的读者,是给没有看全文的人看的,因此摘要要求通俗易懂,尽量制止行话。哈特利(Hartley 2010)针对学位论文的摘要指出,常见的摘要有四种根基布局:(1)以五要素为大纲的布局,(2) 三段布局,(3)四段布局和(4)自由布局。实际上,期刊论文的摘要也可以是这四种根基布局之一。(1) 以五要素为大纲的布局 大大都论文的详细写作接纳了配景、念头、方法、成果和结论的单向思路,因此在摘要中适合按顺序交接问题陈述、念头(方针)、方法、成果和结论五个要素。

(2)三段布局 有的论文事情的意义比力明明,不需要另外强调结论,摘要可使用三段布局,别离先容(1)为什么要做这份事情、(2)这份事情做了什么、(3)这份事情给出的成果是什么。个中,第一段其实包罗了问题陈述中的配景、方针和一部门结论(即意义)。

第二段包罗了念头、方法息争决的详细问题。第三部门包罗了有价值的成果。(3)四段布局 有一些学科,如人文科学,可能不需要问题陈述。

此时,可以分成四段,别离是(1)这份事情做了什么、(2)这份事情是如何做的、(3)接纳的资料或方法是什么、(4)这份事情的结论是什么? 由于这类事情的成果主要用于形成结论,成果自己可表述性不强,因此往往在摘要中不给出详细成果。(4)自由布局 一些论文强调整决了几个差别的问题。此时,在先容完问题陈述和总的念头后,接下来可以分成几部门,别离针对每个子问题做了什么、获得了什么举行先容。

假如针对每个问题有各自的方法、成果和结论,可以将三个要素联合起来先容(有时还需要将小念头放在前面)。纵然这样,最后还可以给出总的结论。有的期刊则对摘要的布局举行了划定。

比方,期刊《Studies in Graduate and Postdoctoral Education》就要求摘要分成目的、方法、发明(即成果)、不足/意义、实际应用和原创价值等几个部门。图1是该期刊上Mohamed等人(2020)的论文摘要。图1 划定告终构的摘要 资源分享:10份写得好的摘要 === 据Kibin网站先容,苏珊·米内兹(Susan M. Inez 2017)是一名英语传授和写作能手,来自美国东北部。

除了英语教育学士学位、写作硕士学位和教育硕士学位外,苏珊还拥有20年传授写作、专业写作、文学等课程的经验。她还担任了两年的校园写作中心的结合主任。她从各种期刊论文遴选出了10篇让人获益匪浅的摘要,除了给出摘要来历、摘要自己外,还对每篇摘要的长处给出了评价。具体信息见以下链接(假如链接丢失,可将本文末尾参考文献列表给出的原文拷到遨游器搜索新的链接): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/10-good-abstract-examples/ 以第一份摘要为例,其原文和译文如下: 第一份摘要 This study explored the pattern of video game usage and video game addiction among male college students and examined how video game addiction was related to expectations of college engagement, college grade point average (GPA), and on-campus drug and alcohol violations. Participants were 477 male, first year students at a liberal arts college. In the week before the start of classes, participants were given two surveys: one of expected college engagement, and the second of video game usage, including a measure of video game addiction. Results suggested that video game addiction is (a) negatively correlated with expected college engagement, (b) negatively correlated with college GPA, even when controlling for high school GPA, and (c) negatively correlated with drug and alcohol violations that occurred during the first year in college. Results are discussed in terms of implications for male students’ engagement and success in college, and in terms of the construct validity of video game addiction. 本研究探讨了大学男生使用视频游戏和视频游戏成瘾的模式,并考查了视频游戏成瘾与大学介入预期、大学平均成就(GPA)以及校园内吸毒和酗酒的关系。

介入者是477名文科学院一年级的男生。在上课前的一周,介入者接管了两项观察:一项是预期的大学介入度,另一项是视频游戏使用环境,包括对视频游戏上瘾水平的丈量。

成果表白,电子游戏成瘾(a)与预期的大学投入呈负相关,(b)与大学平均成就呈负相关,纵然高中平均成就因素被思量进去,(c)与大学第一年产生的吸毒和酗酒呈负相关。我们从对男生在大学的介入度和乐成的影响角度接头研究成果的寄义,也从电子游戏成瘾的布局效度接头了研究成果的寄义。米内兹指出,这份摘要有几点值得注意: 这篇摘要没有详细说明为什么这个问题值得研究,只管它表示了这项研究的重点是成瘾。

别的,这份摘要并没有公然说明个中的寄义。它只是说,文章接头了一些寄义。虽然在大大都环境下,扼要总结研究成果更好,但有时不行能只用几个句子来总结所有信息。假如是这样的话,最仿佛这篇摘要那样,只指出会在论文中接头成果的寄义。

摘要的根基句型 这里针对摘要的每一个要素,别离给出一些我们从各类文献汇集到的句型。句型举例中, A代表作者, C代表特征,D代表范畴或偏向,E代表某个解释或界说, M代表方法,P代表问题, R代表原因,X代体现象、纪律等,O代表其他。对应的小写字母则代表子类或细分,比方,d代表D中的细分偏向。摘要举例取自Schwieterman等人的文章。

1) 问题陈述常见句型 X is defined as E, and this problem is important for (or key issue in) D. Though much work has been done concerning P, the related questions about p are little addressed (or not considered, or not thoroughly considered). Understanding these questions is of primary importance (or significant ) in d. P is a hotly studied topic due to the widespread recongnization of the importance of this problem in D. Unfortunaturely, the p of P is little addressed (or not considered) due to the lack of (or owing to or for reason of) R. p is an important component in P and plays a key role in d. R is the leading cause of X frequently observed in p. M is among the most widely used methods and X is a well-known phenomenon characterized by C. The issue of p in P has received considerable attentions because of its importance in D. p is an increasingly important issue in D. 举例 The habitable zone (HZ) is commonly defined as the range of distances from a host star within which liquid water, a key requirement for life, may exist on a planet’s surface. Substantially more CO2 than present in Earth’s modernatmosphere is required to maintain clement temperatures for most of the HZ, with several bars required at the outeredge. However, most complex aerobic life on Earth is limited by CO2 concentrations of just fractions of a bar. At the same time, most exoplanets in the traditional HZ reside in proximity to M dwarfs, which are more numerous than Sun-like G dwarfs but are predicted to promote greater abundances of gases that can be toxic in the atmospheres of orbiting planets, such as carbon monoxide (CO). 可居住区(HZ)凡是被界说为作为 生命的一个关键要素的液态水可以存在于行星外貌的离宿主恒星的间隔规模。对于大大都可居住区,为了维持温和的温度,要求二氧化碳比地球现代大气中的二氧化碳多得多, 且在外边沿有几个巴的气压。

然而,地球上最庞大的有氧生命受几分之一巴的二氧化碳浓度的限制。与此同时,位于传统宜居带的大大都系外行星都位于M矮星四周,这种矮星比类太阳的G矮星数量更多,但据预测这会使在轨行星大气中更富有一氧化碳等有毒气体。

2)念头 常见句型 Here we show (or demonstrtae) that X . This study aims to elucidate R of X observed in p. The main objective/goal/purpose of the paper/article is to introduce a M (or elucidate R or explain the cause of X). Here (or in this paper) we study (or address or consider) p (or X or M). p (or X or M) is considered in this paper. This paper is concerned with p (or X or M). The paper/article discusses (or deals with, analyses, considers, explains, describes, establishes a method for, aims on, offer a solution to) p (or X or M). This paper develops M (presents M, provides M, studies X, contains R, concentrates on R) This paper gives (or aims to give ) a comprehensive account of R. This paper presents a novel M for R that exists in p of P. 举例 Here we show that the HZ for complex aerobic life is likely limited relative to that for microbial life. 在这里,我们指明,相对于微生物生命,适应于庞大有氧生命的宜居带(数目)可能受限。3)方法 常见句型 We use the method M for p and this method has the properties of C. M is used in this paper. Systematic M (experiments or numerical simulation or case studies or surveys or theoretical analyses ) are performed with To solve p (or to reveal X) , a method based on m is proposed here and this method is capable of . We build M for X and this method is updated from the method of A through introducing m to increase the accurary (or robustness or parameter range). 举例 We use a 1D radiative-convective climate and photochemical models to circumscribe a Habitable Zone for Complex Life (HZCL) based on known toxicity limits for a range of organisms as a proof of concept.. 我们使用1D辐射对流气候和光化学模型,按照一系列生物的已知毒性极限,规定庞大生命可居住区,以作为(我们提出的)观点的证明。

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4) 成果 常见句型 We find that for ... One of the important results is that x1, another one is that x2. The results are X. We obtain the results of or that X It is demonstrated that R is the reason of x. According to this study, X. Interestingly (or Surprisingly), R was shown (found) to have important impact on p. The most striking observation from the data was The most striking finding of this study was The x1 and x2 are here found to be dependent on 举例 We find that for CO2 tolerances of 0.01, 0.1, and 1 bar, the HZCL is only 21%, 32%, and 50% as wide as the conventional HZ for a Sun-like star, and that CO concentrations may limit some complex life throughout the entire HZ of the coolest M dwarfs. 我们发明,对于气压为0.01、0.1和1巴的二氧化碳容差,庞大生命宜居带的宽度仅为类太阳恒星通例宜居带的21%、32%和50%,而且CO2浓度可能会限制最冷的M矮星整个宜居带的某些庞大生命。5)结论 常见句型 These results cast new light on (or have important ramifications for ) p. The present study bridges the gap between p1 and p2. The present study establishes a link between x1 and x2. This study closes up a long debate about R. The conclusion of this study is that The result obtained by this study can be used to (or applied to) This study opens up a new field (or issue) in P. This study not only solves the challenging problem of P but also offers a method that can be used to solve other problems such as p1 and p2. 举例 These results cast new light on the likely distribution of complex life in the universe and have important ramifications for the search for exoplanet biosignatures and technosignatures.. 这些成果给宇宙中庞大生命的漫衍带来新的见解,且对寻找外行星生物特征和技能特征有重要延伸意义。参考文献 HartleyJ 2010. Writing a structured abstract for the thesis,Psychology Teaching Review.16(1):98-100. Koopman P.1997. How to Write an Abstract. Carnegie MellonUniversity.https://users.ece.cmu.edu/~koopman/essays/abstract.html Ahmad Mohamed et al, 2020, Preparing for PhD: exploring doctoral students’preparation strategy, Studies in Graduate and Postdoctoral Education,Vol. 11 No. 1, pp. 89-106 E W. Schwieterman , CT. Reinhard, SL. Olson , CE. Harman & TW. Lyons 2019 A Limited Habitable Zone for Complex Life, The Astrophysical Journal, 878:19 (9pp), pp:1-9 Susan M. Inez ,10 Good Abstract Examples That Will Kickstart Your Brain, April 5, 2017 本公家号建有“论文投稿写作交流群”若干, 有乐趣的用户可加小编小我私家号xiaobianss,或扫以下加友: 留言加投稿写作群即可 版权声明 本文转载自公家号学位与写作,版权归原出地方有。本次转发只为学术信息流传需要,不代表本公家号概念。

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